Read part 1 HERE
- Psychology and the psychologist should look at the positive side of the human beings.
- There must be more to living than just being battered by a hostile environment or by depraved instincts (which may actually be leading to self-destruction).
- People’s needs are not low level and base. We have positive needs that may become neutral in the worst cases, but will not turn negative or base.
- Human behavior does respond to needs but we will be wrong in saying that all our needs are only physiological in nature.
- Needs motivate human action; such needs are very few in number.
- Basically a stage theory.
- The needs at one level have to be met in order for one to move on a higher order.
- The needs at the lowest/primary/base level are the physiological needs, whereas the highest order needs are the self-actualization needs.
Self-actualization: most advanced human need based on the desire to grow and utilize one’s potential up to the optimal level.
- Meta needs: based on desire to grow rather than for meeting a deficiency: expressed in the need for self actualization.
- Deficiency needs: the absence of the underlying requirements triggers these needs (physiological needs, love needs or esteem needs)
Physiological needs: fulfilled through = hunger/food → Pathology associated = overeating, anorexia.
Safety needs: fulfilled through = profession, job → Pathology associated = phobias.
Love and belongings: fulfilled through = marriage, friendship → Pathology associated = antisocial personality.
Esteem needs: fulfilled through = awards, honors, scholarship → Pathology associated = depression.
Self-actualization needs: fulfilled through = painting, writing, singing → Pathology associated = isolation, alienation, cynicism.
Read part 1 HERE
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